Endodontics is the dentistry specialty that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of the disorders of the tooth pulp by removing the affected tissue inside the tooth, cleaning and sterilizing the root canal, permanent filling (sealing) thereto.
After the necrosis of the dental pulp, in the pulp chamber and the root canals remain decomposing residues of the pulp tissue, which is fed to the bacteria in the oral cavity, thus creating favorable conditions for their multiplication. The absence of blood vessels, destroyed with the death of the pulp, prevent the natural defense mechanisms of the body (immune system cells and antibodies) to be transported inside the tooth to start fighting the infection.
Also due to the absence of blood vessels, the antibiotics administered on the general path cannot reach the palce of infection. During their administration, acting only in the tissues around the root, the antibiotics may temporarily relieve the patient's symptoms, but without permanently eliminating the cause. Only the endodontic treatment, by cleaning and disinfecting the root canals can eliminate the infection on the long-term, intervening where the body and antibiotics cannot act, i.e. inside the tooth.
The main goal of the endodontic treatment is to eliminate the sensation of pain and to prevent complications. There are situations in which the endodontic treatment is applied to not worthy unaffected teeth, but which will be polished and covered with prosthetic devices (e.g., metal-ceramic crown). Thus, is eliminated the risk of later pulp complications, which, to be treated, would require removal of previously made prosthetic works.
The advanced therapeutic means in this industry involve the use of auxiliary devices, which include: the magnification microscope or magnifying glass, endomotor, special rotary needles, apex locator, and laser, also used in our clinic, aimed at achieving optimal results.
The ultimate goal is to prevent the extraction of a tooth whose pulp is inflamed or necrotic and treating or preventing the infection and inflammation extending to the neighboring tissues (maxillary bones, soft tissue). In short, during the endodontic treatment, the entire system of canals located inside the tooth root is cleaned of organic debris and bacteria and sealed with a bio-compatible material that does not allow reinfection or relapse.
Specific symptoms of damage to the pulp of a tooth with a carious process are the following: significant pain, spontaneous and constant nocturnal pain, exacerbated by hot and cold food, pain that occurs on pressure, staining for no apparent reason of the tooth in question, mobility, the emergence of an abscess or fistula in front of that tooth.
Although sometimes the tendency is to minimize the importance of the endodontic treatment, it is a difficult labor, of great finesse, whose success can provide a tooth a second chance and so many unpleasant complications are avoided. In case the endodontic treatment is carried out in a sloppy manner or it occurs too late (many patients come at the last minute to a specialty practice) complications may appear (periradicular infections: granulomas, cysts), which often require a resection surgery or even a tooth extraction.
The extension of the infection in the in the orofacial soft tissue (osteitis, osteomyelitis, suppurations of the oro-maxillary regions) phenomena that may endanger the patient's life.